We hear and say the words “contemporary art” almost every day. Often we do it automatically, without giving a second thought to types, genres, or directions of the modern artistic milieu we are referring to.
Below we will describe the main modern art genres, their specifics, history of development, and their main representatives. We chose to address the following art directions: surrealism art, minimalist art, realism art, modern realism, impressionist art, expressionism art, and figurative art.
Let us begin with surrealism art. Surrealism art was a cultural movement that developed in Europe in the aftermath of World War I and was largely influenced by Dada. The term "Surrealism" is said to have been coined by Guillaume Apollinaire as early as 1917. However, the Surrealist movement was not officially established until October 15, 1924, when the French poet and critic André Breton published the Surrealist Manifesto in Paris. The most important center of the movement was Paris, France. Leader Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was, above all, a revolutionary movement. At the time, the movement was associated with political causes such as communism and anarchism. From the 1920s onward, the movement spread around the globe, impacting the visual arts, literature, film, and music of many countries and languages, as well as political thought and practice, philosophy, and social theory.
The movement is best known for its visual surrealism art and writings and the juxtaposition of distant realities to activate the unconscious mind through imagery. Artists painted unnerving, illogical scenes, sometimes with photographic precision, creating strange creatures from everyday objects, and developing painting techniques that allowed the unconscious to express itself. Nowadays, surrealism art is represented by a variety of techniques, among them watercolor painting, oil painting, acrylic painting, and many others. The aim of surrealism art was, according to leader André Breton, to "resolve the previously contradictory conditions of dream and reality into an absolute reality, a super-reality", or surreality. Works of Surrealism art feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions, and non sequitur. However, many Surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost, with the works themselves being secondary, i.e. artifacts of surrealist experimentation. On our website, you can find surrealism art for sale by ANDREI PETKEVICH.
Minimalist art Minimalist art can be seen as extending the abstract idea that art should have its own reality and not be an imitation of some other thing. We usually think of art as representing an aspect of the real world (a landscape, a person, or even a tin of soup!); or reflecting an experience such as an emotion or feeling. With minimalism, no attempt is made to represent an outside reality, the artist wants the viewer to respond only to what is in front of them. The medium, (or material) from which it is made, and the form of the work is the reality. Minimalist painter Frank Stella famously said about his paintings ‘What you see is what you see’. Minimalist art emerged in the late 1950s when artists such as Frank Stella, whose Black Paintings were exhibited at the Museum of Modern Art in New York in 1959, began to turn away from the gestural art of the previous generation. It flourished in the 1960s and 1970s with Carl Andre, Dan Flavin, Donald Judd, Sol LeWitt, Agnes Martin, and Robert Morris becoming the movement’s most important innovators. The development of minimalism is linked to that of conceptual art (which also flourished in the 1960s and 1970s). Both movements challenged the existing structures for making, disseminating, and viewing art and argued that the importance given to the art object is misplaced and leads to a rigid and elitist art world which only the privileged few can afford to enjoy. Aesthetically, minimalist art offers a highly purified form of beauty. It can also be seen as representing such qualities as truth (because it does not pretend to be anything other than what it is), order, simplicity, and harmony. Some of the key qualities of minimalist art are: Geometric single or repeated forms: It is usually three-dimensional, taking the form of sculpture or installation, though there are a number of minimalist painters as well such as Agnes Martin and Frank Stella.
Deliberate lack of expression: With no trace of emotion or intuitive decision-making, little about the artist is revealed in the work. Minimalist artists rejected the notion of the artwork as a unique creation reflecting the personal expression of a gifted individual, seeing this as a distraction from the art object itself. Instead, they created objects that were as impersonal and neutral as possible.
Self-referential: Minimalist art does not refer to anything beyond its literal presence. The materials used are not worked to suggest something else; color (if used) is also non-referential, i.e if a dark color is used, this does not mean the artist is trying to suggest a somber mood.
Factory-manufactured or shop-bought materials: Carl Andre frequently used bricks or tiles as the medium for his sculpture; Dan Flavin created his works from fluorescent bulbs purchased from a hardware store; Judd's sculptures are built by skilled workers following the artist's instructions.
Space-aware: Carl Andre said 'I'm not a studio artist, I'm a location artist'. Minimalist art directly engages with the space it occupies. The sculpture is carefully arranged to emphasize and reveal the architecture of the gallery, often being presented on walls, in corners, or directly onto the floor, encouraging the viewer to be conscious of the space.
Artists whose minimalist original art you can view and buy online at our website are: GANNA GIDORA and BAGRAT ARAZYAN
In its specific sense realism, art refers to a mid-nineteenth-century artistic movement characterised by subjects painted from everyday life in a naturalistic manner; however the term is also generally used to describe artworks painted in a realistic almost photographic way.
Until the nineteenth century artistic conventions governed style and subject matter, resulting in artworks that often appeared artificial and removed from real life. Then, the development of naturalism began to go hand in hand with increasing emphasis on realism of subject, meaning subjects outside the high art tradition.
In practice realist subject matter meant scenes of peasant and working class life, the life of the city streets, cafes and popular entertainments, and an increasing frankness in the treatment of the body and sexual subjects. The term generally implies a certain grittiness in choice of subject. Such subject matter combined with the new naturalism of treatment caused shock among the predominantly upper and middle class audiences for art.
Realism is also applied as a more general stylistic term to forms of sharply focused almost photographic painting irrespective of subject matter, e.g. early Pre-Raphaelite work such as John Everett Millais’ Ophelia.
Realism paintings for sale are widely represented on our website. Our artists who work in realism art are MARIIA BYKOVA, OLEKSIY LYTVYNENKO, ANDREI PETKEVICH, PAVLO YARMOLYK.
The term modern realism is applied to painting or sculpture created since the development of abstraction in modern art but which continues to represent things in a realistic manner.
Although in the nineteenth century realism had a special meaning as an art term, since the rise of abstract approaches in modern art, realism, or realist, or realistic, has come to be primarily a stylistic description referring to painting or sculpture that continues to represent things in a way that more or less pre-dates post-impressionism and the succession of modern styles that followed. Much of the best representatives of modern realism art still have the edginess of subject matter that was the essential characteristic of nineteenth-century realism.
In the twentieth century, realism saw an upsurge in the 1920s when the shock of the First World War brought a reaction, known as the return to order, to the avant-garde experimentation of the pre-war period.
In Germany this led to the Neue Sachlichkeit movement (Otto Dix, Christian Schad) and magic realism. In France, Andre Derain, previously a fauve painter, became a central figure in what was called traditionisme. In the USA there was the phenomenon of regionalism, and the great realist Edward Hopper. In Britain there was the Euston Road School and the painter Meredith Frampton. The British Kitchen Sink artists could be included, but they used essentially modern styles to paint realist subjects.
Impressionist art developed in France in the nineteenth century and is based on the practice of painting out of doors and spontaneously ‘on the spot’ rather than in a studio from sketches. Main impressionist subjects were landscape paintings, nature paintings and scenes of everyday life. Impressionism was developed by Claude Monet and other Paris-based artists from the early 1860s. Instead of painting in a studio, the impressionists found that they could capture the momentary and transient effects of sunlight by working quickly, in front of their subjects, in the open air rather than in a studio. This resulted in a greater awareness of light and colour and the shifting pattern of the natural scene. Brushwork became rapid and broken into separate dabs in order to render the fleeting quality of light.
The first group exhibition was in Paris in 1874 and included work by Monet, Auguste Renoir, Edgar Degas and Paul Cezanne. The work shown was greeted with derision with Monet’s Impression, Sunrise particularly singled out for ridicule and giving its name (used by critics as an insult) to the movement. Seven further exhibitions were then held at intervals until 1886. Other core artists of impressionism were Camille Pissarro and Berthe Morisot with Edgar Degas and Edouard Manet also often associated with the movement. Although originating in France, impressionism had great influence overseas. Core British impressionists included Walter Richard Sickert and Wilson Steer. I our gallery we have original art for sale by contemporary impressionists DANKO MERIN, OLEKSANDR BABAK, MIKHEIL BALAVADZE, ALEXANDER LEVICH and OLEKSIY LYTVYNENKO. Еxpressionism art
Expressionism art refers to art in which the image of reality is distorted in order to make it expressive of the artist’s inner feelings or ideas. In expressionist art, colour in particular can be highly intense and non-naturalistic, brushwork is typically free and paint application tends to be generous and highly textured. Expressionist art tends to be emotional and sometimes mystical. It can be seen as an extension of Romanticism. Although the term expressionist can be applied to artworks from any era, it is generally applied to art of the twentieth century. It may be said to start with Vincent Van Gogh and then form a major stream of modern art embracing, among many others, Edvard Munch, fauvism and Henri Matisse, Georges Rouault, the Brücke and Blaue Reiter groups, Egon Schiele, Oskar Kokoschka, Paul Klee, Max Beckmann, most of Pablo Picasso, Henry Moore, Graham Sutherland, Francis Bacon, Alberto Giacometti, Jean Dubuffet, Georg Baselitz, Anselm Kiefer and the neo-expressionism of the 1980s. The term is often specifically associated with modern German art (also referred to as German expressionism), particularly the Brücke and Blaue Reiter groups. After World War II an abstract form of expressionism developed in America, known as abstract expressionism. Among the artwork for sale available on our website there are original paintings by DANKO MERIN and ANA ASAVEI PIETRARU
Figurative art describes any form of modern art that retains strong references to the real world and particularly to the human figure.
The term has been particularly used since the arrival of abstract art to refer to artists that retain aspects of the real world as their subject matter, though in a general sense figurative also applies retrospectively to all art before abstract art, especially to classic paintings.
Modern figurative art can be seen as distinct from modern realism in that figurative art uses modern idioms, while modern realists work in styles predating post-impressionism (more or less). In fact, modern figurative art is more or less identical with the general current of expressionism that can be traced through the twentieth century and on.
Picasso after about 1920 is the great exemplar of modern figurative painting, and Alberto Giacometti from about 1940 is the great figurative sculptor. After the Second World War figuration can be tracked through the work of Francis Bacon, Lucian Freud and the other artists of the School of London, and through pop art, neo-expressionism, and new spirit painting. Among art for sale on our website can be found the figurative art works by EDUARD BELSKY, GANNA GIDORA, SERHIY SAVCHENKO and OLEKSIY LYTVYNENKO.